Como o socialismo matou milhões de pessoas de fome na África e no restante do mundo

Muito de nós já vimos imagens das crianças etíopes com fome, com barrigas inchadas e olhos cobertos com moscas. O que poucos sabem é que elas foram vítimas inocentes do Derg, um grupo de militares marxistas que tomou o poder na Etiópia e usou a fome para chantagear partes rebeldes do país.

Entre 1983 e 1985, mais de 400 mil pessoas morreram de fome. Em 1984, o Derg utilizou 46% do PIB para gastos militares, criando o maior exército da África. Em contraste, o gasto com saúde diminuiu de 6% do PIB em 1973 para 3% em 1990.

Previsivelmente, o Derg culpou a seca pela fome, mesmo com a escassez de alimentos tendo sido precedida por meses de chuva. Em 1991, o Derg foi derrubado e seu líder, Mengistu Haile Mariam, escapou para o Zimbabwe, onde mora sob proteção do governo e dos pagadores de impostos até hoje.

image
Consumo de quilocalorias por pessoa, 1961-2013. Fonte: Banco Mundial

Falando em Zimbabwe, em 1999, Robert Mugabe, o ditador marxista que assumiu o poder há 35 anos, criou um catastrófico programa de reforma agrária que tinha como objetivo estatizar fazendas privadas e expulsar fazendeiros e empresários não-africanos. O resultado foi um colapso na produção agrícola, a segunda maior hiperinflação já registrada no mundo – 89,700,000,000,000,000,000,000% por ano (sim, 89,7 sextilhões) – e 94% do país sem emprego.

Milhares de zimbabweanos morreram de fome e doenças, apesar da massiva ajuda internacional. Como no caso da Etiópia, o governo do Zimbabwe culpou o clima, roubou grande parte do dinheiro da ajuda internacional e negou alimentos e medicamentos aos seus adversários políticos.

A tabela abaixo mostra que seis das dez piores matanças por fome no Século XX aconteceram em países socialistas. Além disso, Nigéria, Somália e Bangladesh tiveram escassez de alimentos como resultado de sucessivas guerras e má gestão estatal.

20th-century-famines
Maiores matanças do Século XX por fome, em proporção da população. Fontes: Zycher and Daley (1989); US Bureau of the Census; World Bank; populstat.info; Institute of Development Studies.

Hoje não há um único caso de fome em massa em andamento no mundo – nem mesmo em locais devastados pela guerra como a Síria, e por quatro motivos. Primeiramente, o nível produção agrícola está mais alto do que nunca, o que fez os preços caírem: entre 1960 e 2015, a população mundial aumentou 143% enquanto o preço dos alimentos diminuiu 22%. Além disso, as pessoas têm mais renda e podem comprar mais comida: nos últimos 55 anos, a renda per capita média mundial aumentou 163%. Houve também desenvolvimento maciço dos transportes e das comunicações, o que tornou possível entregar ajuda alimentária em qualquer parte do mundo de forma relativamente rápida. E, por fim, a globalização e o comércio garantem que os alimentos possam ser adquiridos por qualquer pessoa e em qualquer lugar.

A África foi a principal beneficiária desse desenvolvimento, Em 1961, cada africano consumia, em média, 1993 quilocalorias por dia. Em 2011, último ano que o Banco Mundial forneceu os dados do continente, o consumo de cada africano era de 2618 quilocalorias. Globalmente, o consumo aumentou de 2196 para 2870 quilocalorias ao dia. Na Etiópia não foi diferente. Dois anos depois da deposição do Derg, cada etíope consuma 1508 quilocalorias por dia e, em 2013, o consumo por etíope já estava em 2131 quilocalorias por dia.

O Zimbabwe, que ainda sofre com um ditador socialista marxista, não teve a mesma sorte. Em 1961, cada zimbabuano consumia 2115 quilocalorias por dia e, em 2013 – 52 anos depois – esse consumo se manteve praticamente o mesmo (2110 quilocalorias por dia).

Onde quer que tenha sido instalado, da União Soviética até a Venezuela, o socialismo falhou. O socialismo é a fábula que promete igualdade e abundância para trazer tirania e fome.

Tradução: Rafael Cury; Revisão: Marcelo Faria

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